CBD and Inflammation

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The Inflammation Theory of Disease

Inflammation and CBD? “It is certainly clear that our most pervasive chronic conditions share a common feature in terms of their underlying cause. Whether we are talking about coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, depression, rheumatoid arthritis, or even Alzheimer’s disease, what current medical literature reveals is the powerful role that inflammation plays in these and other common conditions. (24)”

“An increasing body of evidence shows that chronic inflammation causes and advances many common diseases. This opens new possibilities for treatment and therapy by blocking the inflammatory processes (3).”

“Worldwide, 3 of 5 people die due to chronic inflammatory diseases like stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disorders, cancer, obesity, and diabetes (1).”

According to a 2010 review, “It is the expression of various immune mediators and modulators (emphasis added) as well as the abundance and activation state of different cell types in the tumor microenvironment that dictate in which direction the balance is tipped, and whether inflammation-promotes tumor growth or anti-tumor immunity will ensue (Lin and Karin, 2007Smyth et al., 2006).”


Pain

“There is significant evidence showing that certain cytokines/chemokines are involved in not only the initiation but also the persistence of pathologic pain by directly activating nociceptive sensory neurons (18).

A 2018 study, published in Cellular Immunology, states that “The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines…(25)” This study was conducted with mice.


Cancer

“Rosana Risques, a specialist in inflammatory processes at the University of Washington in Seattle, USA, said that it is becoming clear that chronic inflammation is implicated at every level of tumorigenesis.(3)”

Tumorigenesis is the process by which tumors are induced.

According to a 2010 study review titled, Immunity, Inflammation, and Cancer, “It is the expression of various immune mediators and modulators as well as the abundance and activation state of different cell types in the tumor microenvironment that dictate in which direction the balance is tipped and whether inflammation-promotes tumor growth or anti-tumor immunity will ensue (Lin and Karin, 2007Smyth et al., 2006).”

A great TED talk by one of the world’s foremost researchers on Cannabinoids and Cancer

Depression

“One of the most recent and potentially important insights from this work is the discovery that components of the immune system that mediate inflammation may be intimately involved in depression (2).”


Neurological Disease

“Inflammation is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of degenerative brain diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, researchers have sought to combat such diseases by controlling inflammatory responses (4).”

A 2015 review states, “These recent studies have shown that inducers trigger inflammatory responses that can act as a major progression factor for (if not a direct cause of) degenerative diseases. Thus, it seems reasonable to speculate that the regulation of inflammatory responses could prevent or slow disease progression (4).” Additionally, “Inflammation is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of degenerative brain diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, researchers have sought to combat such diseases by controlling inflammatory responses (4).”


Parkinson’s

The American Parkinson’s Disease Association states, “For more than thirty years it has been understood that inflammatory changes occur in the brains of patients with PD, but only in the last few years has inflammation been viewed as part of the cause of the progressive nature of the disease and not just a result of the disease (16).”

A 2007 literature review states, “Comparatively recently it has been found that in both patients and experimental models of PD in animals neuroinflammation appears to be a ubiquitous finding (15).”

The review concludes, “The observations in patients and experimental models of Parkinson’s Disease that neuroinflammation appears to be one of the, if not the, most consistent pathological change, opens new possibilities in understanding this illness (15).”


Autoimmune Disease

“In the case of autoimmune diseases, overproduction of cytokines and chemokines leads to inflammation of a body tissue (10).”


Diabetes

“The association between hyperglycemia and inflammation and vascular complications in diabetes is now well established (11).”

A study, published in 2008 states, “Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic, non-toxic compound has been shown to block diabetes- and endotoxin-induced retinal damage (14).”


Inflammatory Bowel Disease

“As yet, no clinical trials of cannabinoids in IBD have met their primary endpoints but demonstrate improvements in symptoms, quality of life, and clinical severity scores.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441301/figure/F2/
A summary of clinical studies and trials of cannabis and cannabinoids in human IBD (23).


References

  1. Roma Pahwa1; Ishwarlal Jialal2. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
  2. George M. Slavich and Michael R. Irwin, From Stress to Inflammation and Major Depressive Disorder: A Social Signal Transduction Theory of Depression, Psychol Bull. 2014 May; 140(3): 774–815.
  3. Philip Hunter, The inflammation theory of disease: The growing realization that chronic inflammation is crucial in many diseases opens new avenues for treatment, Psychiatr Pol. 2018 Jun 30;52(3):437-447. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492709/
  4. Joo Hong Woo,1Jee Hoon Lee,1Hyunmi Kim,1,2Soo Jung Park,1Eun-hye Joe,1,2 and Ilo Jou, Control of Inflammatory Responses: a New Paradigm for the Treatment of Chronic Neuronal Diseases,Exp Neurobiol. 2015 Jun; 24(2): 95–102.Published online 2015 May 11. doi: 10.5607/en.2015.24.2.95PMCID: PMC4479815PMID: 26113788
  5. Link found between chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders and “false alarms”,https://vector.childrenshospital.org/2018/02/mda5-autoinflammatory-disease/
  6. https://www.ajmc.com/insights/patient-selection-safety-tnf-inhibitors/pathophysiology-of-autoimmune-diseases-and-inflammation
  7. http://microbeminded.com/2018/04/16/re-thinking-the-theory-of-autoimmunity-in-the-era-of-the-microbiome/
  8. https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/autoimmune-diseases
  9. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000816.htm
  10. Inflammationm and Autoimmune diseases http://www.gluegrant.org/inflammation-autoimmune.htm
  11. Rena M. Pollack1, Marc Y. Donath2, Derek LeRoith3 and Gil Leibowitz1,4⇑,Anti-inflammatory Agents in the Treatment of Diabetes and Its Vascular Complications,Diabetes Care 2016 Aug; 39(Supplement 2): S244-S252. https://doi.org/10.2337/dcS15-3015
  12. Mike Fillon, Details Linking Chronic Inflammation and Cancer Continue To Emerge , JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 105, Issue 8, 17 April 2013, Pages 509-510, https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt087 Published: 21 March 2013
  13. C Sergei I. Grivennikov,1Florian R. Greten,2 and Michael Karin, Immunity, Inflammation, and Cancer, Cell. 2010 Mar 19; 140(6): 883–899.doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.025PMCID: PMC2866629NIHMSID: NIHMS188521PMID: 20303878,
  14. Gregory I. Liou,1a,† John A.Auchampach,2 Cecilia J. Hillard,2 Gu Zhu,1a Bilal Yousufzai,1b Salman Mian,1aSohail Khan,1a and Yousuf Khalifa1a a, Mediation of Cannabidiol anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor*, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Dec; 49(12): 5526–5531.
  15. P S Whitton, Inflammation as a causative factor in the aetiology of Parkinson’s disease, Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Apr; 150(8): 963–976.
  16. Patrick L. McGeerEdith G. McGeer, Inflammation and neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease, Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research and the Pacific Parkinson’s Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 2255 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
  17. Dr. Rebecca Gilbert, The Role of Inflammation in Parkinson’s Disease ,https://www.apdaparkinson.org/article/the-role-of-inflammation-in-parkinsons-disease/
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2785020/
  19. https://brokenbrain.com/
  20. D.C. Hammell,1,a L.P. Zhang,2,a F. Ma,2 S.M. Abshire,2 S.L. McIlwrath,2 A.L. Stinchcomb,1 and K.N. Westlund2 , Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis,,Eur J Pain. 2016 Jul; 20(6): 936–948., https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/
  21. Charles L. RaisonLucile Capuron, and Andrew H. Miller, Cytokines sing the blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression, Trends Immunol. 2006 Jan; 27(1): 24–31.
  22. Ambrose T1,2Simmons A1,2., Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System-Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?,J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Mar; 13(4): 525–535., https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441301/figure/F2/
  23. Dr. David Perlmutter, https://www.drperlmutter.com/targeting-inflammation-with-cbd/
  24. HongboLia,WeiminKongb,Christina,R.Chambersa, DaohaiYuc,DoinaGaneab Ronald F.TumadSara JaneWarde,The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice., Cellular ImmunologyVolume 329, July 2018, Pages 1-9

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